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Why Trenbolone is effective at fat loss

While reading this article keep in mind that Tren (trenbolone finaplix) binds to the androgen receptor incredibly well.

The Androgen Receptor

There are many mechanisms behind the ability of androgens to reduce body fat. However, one key determinant of the amount of adipose tissue reduced is that particular androgen's ability to bind to the AR. 

I need to mention that most androgens interact with both AR and GR (Glucocorticoid Receptors). We'll touch on that later. For now, let me explain why it matters how well an androgen binds to the AR in terms of reducing adipose tissue. Most of you know that ARs are present in tissue such as muscle. This is one of the mechanisms behind their ability to induce muscular hypertrophy. Now what does this have to do with body fat? Simple, AR's are present in adipose tissue as well. (1) 

What does this mean? Well, it's been shown that the higher the density of ARs, the more that lipid uptake is inhibited. (2) It's also been shown that androgens that bind avidly to the AR cause an increase or upregulation of AR in adipocytes. (1) I think the greater the androgen binds to the AR, the more upregulation of AR in adipocytes occurs. This would lead to a significant reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue. (3) 

Notice that I specifically mentioned subcutaneous adipose tissue (fat right beneath the skin) and not visceral adipose tissue (fat around the internal organs). Why did I bother to differentiate between the two? Simple. For the most part, we bodybuilders are concerned only with subcutaneous adipose tissue. Visceral fat doesn't have much of an effect on a person's appearance. For that reason, we're only concerning ourselves with subcutaneous adipose tissue.

Now, what other mechanisms of action can account for the effects seen with those steroids that bind tightly to the AR? Well, those that bind tightly to the AR will decrease LPL (Lipoprotein Lipase), which is an enzyme that causes lipid accumulation. (4) They may also decrease Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase and Fatty Acid Synthetase.(5)

Another interesting note is that androgens have been shown to increase adenyl cylclase as well. This is the enzyme which is responsible for the conversion of cytoplasmic ATP into cyclic AMP. Increasing its concentrations is a good thing, in other words.

1. Dieudonne MN, et al. "Androgen receptors in human preadipocytes and adipocytes: regional specifities and regulation by sex steroids." Am J Physiol 1998 Jun;274(6 Pt 1): C1645-52

2. Sjogren J, et al. "Androgen binding hormone to adipose tissue in rats." Biochim Biophys Acta 1995 May 11;1244(1):117-20

3. De Pergola G, et al. "Up-regulation of androgen receptor binding in male rat fat pad adipose precursor cells exposed to testosterone: study in a whole cell assay system." J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1990 Nov 30;37(4):553-8

4. Xu X, et al. "The effects of androgens on the regulation of lipolysis in adipose precursor cells." Endocrinology 1990 Feb;126(2):1229-34

5. Burch L, et al. "Effect of anabolic steroids on lipogenic and lipolytic enzymes in sheep tissues." Horm Metab Res 1982 Jan;14(1):52-3

6. Pedersen SB, et al. "Characterization of regional and gender differences in glucocorticoid receptors and lipoprotein lipase activity in human adipose tissue." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994 Jun;78(6):1354-9

7. Ottosson M, et al. "The effects of cortisol on the regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity in human adipose tissue." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994 Sep;79(3):820-5

8. Samra JS, et al. "Effects of physiological hypercortisolemia on the regulation of lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998 Feb;83(2):626-31

9. Mayer M, Rosen F. "Interaction of anabolic steroids with glucocorticoid receptor sites in rat muscle cytosol." Am J Physiol 1975 Nov;229(5):1381-6

10. Ottosson M, et al. "Blockade of the glucocorticoid receptor with RU 486: effects in vitro and in vivo on human adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity." Obes Res 1995 May;3(3):233-40

11. Kerr JE, et al. "Androgens modulate glucocorticoid receptor mRNA, but not mineralcorticoid receptor mRNA levels, in the rat hippocampus." J Neuroendocrinol 1996 Jun;8(6):439-47

12. Steinsapir J, Muldoon TG. "Role of microsomal receptors in steroid hormone action." Steroids 1991 Feb;56(2):66-71

13. Boada LD, et al. "Identification of a specific binding site for the anabolic steroid stanozolol in male rat liver microsomes." J Pharmacol Exp Their 1996 Dec;279(3):1123-9

14. McCann JP, et al. "Subcellular distribution and glycosylation patterns of adrogen receptor from sheep omental adipose tissue." J Endocrinol 2001 Jun;169(3):587-93

15. Danhaive PA, Rousseau GG. "Binding of glucocorticoid antagonists to androgen and glucocorticoid hormone receptors in rat skeletal muscle." J Steroid Biochem 1986 Feb;24(2):481-7

16. Danhaive PA, Rousseau GG. "Evidence for sex-dependent anabolic response to androgenic steroids mediated by muscle glucocorticoid receptors in the rat." J Steroid Biochem 1988 Jun;29(6):575-81

17. Lovejoy JC, et al. "Oral anabolic steroid treatment, but not parental androgen treatment, decreases abdominal fat in obese, older men." Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995 Sep;19(9):614-24

18. Sheffield-Moore M, et al. "Oxandrolone administration stimulates net muscle protein synthesis in young men." J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Aug;84(8):2705-11

19. Xu X, et al. "Postreceptor events involved in the up-regulation of beta-adrenergic receptor mediated lipolysis by testosterone in rat white adipocytes." Endocrinology 1993 April;132(4):1651-7

20. De Pergola G. "The adipose tissue metabolism: role of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone." Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000 Jun;24 Suppl 2:S59-63

21. Marin P, et al. "Assimilation and mobilization of triglycerides in subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue in vivo in men: effects of androgens." J Clin Endrocrinol Metab 1995 Jan;80(1):239-43

22. Thiblin I, et al. "Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytyrptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic/androgenic steroids." Br J Pharmacol 1999 Mar;126(6):1301-6

23. Samanin R, Garattini S. "Neurochemical mechanism of action of anorectic drugs." Pharmacol Toxicol 1993 Aug;73(2):63-8

24. Maxwell G, et al. "The effect of dopamine upon oxidative metabolism of brown fat adipocytes." Eur J Pharmacol 1985 Oct 22;116(3):293-7

25. Sandyk R. "Dopamine and insulin interact to modulate in vitro glucose transport in rat adipocytes." Int J Neurosci 1988 Nov;43(1-2):9-14

26. Lee TL, et al. "Activation of beta 3-adrenoreceptors by exogenous dopamine to lower glucose uptake into rat adipocytes." J Auton Nerv Syst 1998 Dec 11;74(2-3):86-90

27. Maxwell GM, et al. "Thermogenesis and the effect of injected catecholamines on the oxygen consumption of cafeteria-fed rats." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1988 May;15(5):391-400

28. Nakagawa M, et al. "The effects of dopamine infusion on the postoperative energy expenditure, metabolism, and catecholamine levels of patients after esophagectomy." Surg Today 1994;24(8):688-93

29. Pernet A, et al. "The metabolic effects of dopamine in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1984;26(1):23-8

30. Zhang Y, et al. "Bromocriptine/SKF38393 treatment ameliorates dyslipidemia in ob/ob mice." Metabolism 1999 Aug;48(8):1033-40

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